The Division of Urology is a unit that contributes significantly to the annual publication targets and output of the Department of Surgery. Members of the team are active in various research activities which include studies that involve biomarker development, cancer research, database/registry management, collaborative work with multiple departments and organisations in all aspects of urology. Apart from this, there are also ongoing clinical research and trials being conducted with multiple industrial partners, and with our surgeons and urologist in training. Generous support from successful applications of both internal and external research grants have been forthcoming to fund
all our research activities.

  1. Yii RS, Lim J, Sothilingam S, Yeoh WS, Fadzli AN, Ong TA, Kuppusamy S, Razack AH. Predictive factors of prostate cancer diagnosis with PSA 4.0–10.0 ng/ml in a multi-ethnic Asian population, Malaysia. Asian journal of surgery. 2020 Jan 1;43(1):87-94.
  2. Ramasandran G, Yen KS, Mat S, Kamaruzzaman SB, Vyrn CA, Aik OT, Razack AH, Pin TM. Ethnic differences in urinary incontinence among women aged 55 years and over: results from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR). Journal of Health and Translational Medicine. 2020 Jan 21;23(1):18-22.
  3. Ng CJ, Teo CH, Ang KM, Kok YL, Ashraf K, Leong HL, Taher SW, Mohd SZ, Zakaria ZF, Wong PF, Hor CP. Barriers to implementing a national health screening program for men in Malaysia: An online survey of healthcare providers. Malaysian Family Physician: the Official Journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. 2020;15(1):6.
  4. Uemura H, Ye D, Kanesvaran R, Chiong E, Lojanapiwat B, Pu YS, Rawal SK, Abdul Razack AH, Zeng H, Chung BH, Md Yusoff NA. United in Fight against prOstate cancer (UFO) registry: first results from a large, multicentre, prospective, longitudinal cohort study of advanced prostate cancer in Asia. Bju International. 2020 Apr;125(4):541-52.
  5. Lim J, Amantakul A, Shariff N, Lojanapiwat B, Alip A, Ong TA, Thevarajah S, Ahmayuddin F, Mathew A, Sriplakich S, Vuthiwong J. Clinical outcomes of abiraterone acetate and predictors of its treatment duration in metastatic castrationresistant prostate cancer: Realworld experience in the Southeast Asian cohort. Cancer Medicine. 2020 May 6.
  6. Jalil NB, Lee PY, Afiah MN, Abdullah KL, Azizi FM, Rassip NA, Ong TA, Ng CJ, Lee YK, Cheong AT, Razack AH. Effectiveness of Decision Aid in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer: a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial at Tertiary Referral Hospitals in an Asia Pacific Country. Journal of Cancer Education. 2020 Jun 20:1-0.
  7. Perumal K, Mun KS, Yap NY, Razack AH, Gobe GC, Ong TA, Kuppusamy S, Rajandram R. A Study on the Immunohistochemical Expressions of Leptin and Leptin Receptor in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. BioMed Research International. 2020 Aug 4;2020.
  8. de la Rosette J, Laguna P, ÁlvarezMaestro M, Eto M, Mochtar CA, Albayrak S, MendozaValdes A, Ong TA, Khadgi S, AlTerki A, Bolton D. Crosscontinental comparison of safety and protection measures amongst urologists during COVID19. International Journal of Urology. 2020 Aug 8.
  9. Teoh JY, Cho CL, Wei Y, Isotani S, Tiong HY, Ong TA, Kijvikai K, Chu PS, Chan ES, Ng CF, Asian Urological Surgery Training & Education Group. Surgical training for anatomical endoscopic enucleation of the prostate. Andrologia. 2020 Sep;52(8):e13708.
  10. Nalairndran G, Hassan Abdul Razack A, Mai CW, FeiLei Chung F, Chan KK, Hii LW, Lim WM, Chung I, Leong CO. Phosphoinositidedependent Kinase1 (PDPK1) regulates serum/glucocorticoidregulated Kinase 3 (SGK3) for prostate cancer cell survival. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 2020 Sep 14.
  1. Chiong E, Murphy DG, Akaza H, Buchan NC, Chung BH, Kanesvaran R, Khochikar M, Letran J, Lojanapiwat B, Ng CF, Ong T. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer in the Asia Pacific region:‘realworld’consideration of results from the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2017. BJU international. 2019 Jan;123(1):22-34.
  2. Adams CD, Richmond R, Ferreira DL, Spiller W, Tan V, Zheng J, Würtz P, Donovan J, Hamdy F, Neal D, Lane JA. Circulating metabolic biomarkers of screen-detected prostate cancer in the ProtecT study. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers. 2019 Jan 1;28(1):208-16.
  3. Yii RS, Lim J, Sothilingam S, Yeoh WS, Fadzli AN, Ong TA, Kuppusamy S, Razack AH. Predictive factors of prostate cancer diagnosis with PSA 4.0–10.0 ng/ml in a multi-ethnic Asian population, Malaysia. Asian journal of surgery. 2020 Jan 1;43(1):87-94.
  4. Law PJ, Timofeeva M, Fernandez-Rozadilla C, Broderick P, Studd J, Fernandez-Tajes J, Farrington S, Svinti V, Palles C, Orlando G, Sud A. Association analyses identify 31 new risk loci for colorectal cancer susceptibility. Nature communications. 2019 May 14;10(1):1-5.
  5. Lojanapiwat B, Lee JY, Gang Z, Kim CS, Fai NC, Hakim L, Umbas R, Ong TA, Lim J, Letran JL, Chiong E. Report of the third Asian Prostate Cancer study meeting. Prostate international. 2019 Jun 1;7(2):60-7.
  6. Youl Lee J, Taniguchi T, Zhang K, Ng CF, Hakim L, Umbas R, Kim CS, Chung BH, Kim WJ, Aik Ong T, Lim J. Report of the forth Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) study meeting. 2019 Jun 1;49(6):581-586.
  7. Cantu H, Maarof SN, Hashim H. The Inflammatory Contracted Bladder. Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports. 2019 Jun 15;14(2):67-74.
  8. Anbarasen L, Lim J, Rajandram R, Mun KS, Sia SF. Expression of osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and-9 proteins in vascular instability in brain arteriovenous malformation. PeerJ. 2019 Jun 24;7:e7058.
  9. Yap NY, Ong TA, Morais C, Pailoor J, Gobe GC, Rajandram R. Establishment of epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures and cell lines from primary renal cancer nephrectomies. Cell biology international. 2019 Jun;43(6):715-25.
  10. Mat S, Razack AH, Lim J, Khong SY, Kamaruzzaman SB, Chin AV, Abbas AA, Hairi NN, Othman S, Tan MP. Factors determining the increased risk of falls in individuals with knee pain in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) study. Frontiers in medicine. 2019;6.
  11. Loveday C, Sud A, Litchfield K, Levy M, Holroyd A, Broderick P, KoteJarai Z, Dunning AM, Muir K, Peto J, Eeles R. Runs of homozygosity and testicular cancer risk. Andrology. 2019 Jul;7(4):555-64.
  12. Yap XL, Ong TA, Lim J, Wood B, Lee WL. Study of prostate cancer-derived extracellular vesicles in urine using IR spectroscopy. Progress in Drug Discovery & Biomedical Science. 2019 Jul 27;2(1).
  13. Perumal K, Huin WK, Yap NY, Ong TA, Gobe GC, Rajandram R. Role of leptin as a biomarker for early detection of renal cell carcinoma? No evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medical hypotheses. 2019 Aug 1;129:109239.
  14. Yap NY, Yap FN, Perumal K, Rajandram R. Circulating adiponectin as a biomarker in renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomarkers. 2019 Aug 18;24(6):607-14.
  15. Liu Y, Uemura H, Ye D, Lee JY, Chiong E, Pu YS, Razack AH, Pripatnanont C, Rawal S, Low GK, Qiu H. Prostate cancer in Asia: design of a patient registry to inform real-world treatments, outcomes, and quality of life. Prostate International. 2019 Sep 1;7(3):108-13.
  16. Teoh JY, Cho CL, Wei Y, Isotani S, Tiong HY, Ong TA, Kijvikai K, Chu PS, Chan ES, Ng CF. A newly developed porcine training model for transurethral piecemeal and en bloc resection of bladder tumour. World journal of urology. 2019 Sep 1;37(9):1879-87.
  17. Saad M, Alip A, Lim J, Abdullah MM, Chong FL, Chua CB, Ismail F, Khong RK, Lim CS, Loh CS, Malek R. Management of advanced prostate cancer in a middleincome country: realworld consideration of the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference 2017. BJU international. 2019 Sep;124(3):373-82.
  18. Aldoghachi AF, Baharudin A, Ahmad U, Chan SC, Ong TA, Yunus R, Razack AH, Yusoff K, Veerakumarasivam A. Evaluation of CERS2 Gene as a Potential Biomarker for Bladder Cancer. Disease markers. 2019 Sep 15;2019.
  19. Zhu CZ, Ting HN, Ng KH, Ong TA. A review on the accuracy of bladder cancer detection methods. Journal of Cancer. 2019;10(17):4038.
  20. Samberkar S, Rajandram R, Mun KS, Samberkar P, Danaee M, Zulkafli IS. Carbonic anhydrase IX immunohistochemistry has potential to predict renal cell carcinoma outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analyses. The Malaysian Journal of Pathology. 2019 Dec 1;41(3):233-42.
  21. Tan JS, Ong KC, Ong DB, Wu YS, Razack A, Kuppusamy S, Lim J, Rhodes A. Polymorphisms in the androgen receptor CAG repeat sequence are related to tumour stage but not to ERG or androgen receptor expression in Malaysian men with prostate cancer. The Malaysian Journal of Pathology. 2019 Dec 1;41(3):243-51.
  1. Mark R, Huri HZ, Razack AH. Demographic, clinical and lifestyle predictors for severity of erectile dysfunction and biomarkers level in Malaysian patients. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;54(3). 
  2. Shanggar K, Kia FQ, Retnagowri RA, Norman D. Revisiting prostate specific antigen density (PSAD): A prospective analysis in predicting the histology of prostate biopsy. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2018;11(4):3873-9. 
  3. Ho LY, Chu PS, Consigliere DT, Zainuddin ZM, Bolong D, Chan CK, Eng M, Huynh DN, Kochakarn W, Lapitan MC, Le DK. Symptom prevalence, bother, and treatment satisfaction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms in Southeast Asia: a multinational, cross-sectional survey. World journal of urology. 2018 Jan 1;36(1):79-86.
  4. Yap NY, Khoo WT, Perumal K, Ng KA, Rajandram R, Alip A, Saad M, Ong TA. Practical updates in medical therapy for advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Urological Science. 2018 May 1;29(3):120.
  5. Rajandram R, Perumal K, Yap NY. Prognostic biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma: is there a relationship with obesity?. Translational Andrology and Urology. 2019 May;8(Suppl 2):S138.
  6. Dadaev T, Saunders EJ, Newcombe PJ, Anokian E, Leongamornlert DA, Brook MN, Cieza-Borrella C, Mijuskovic M, Wakerell S, Al Olama AA, Schumacher FR. Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants. Nature communications. 2018 Jun 11;9(1):1-9.
  7. Schumacher FR, Al Olama AA, Berndt SI, Benlloch S, Ahmed M, Saunders EJ, Dadaev T, Leongamornlert D, Anokian E, Cieza-Borrella C, Goh C. Association analyses of more than 140,000 men identify 63 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci. Nature genetics. 2018 Jul;50(7):928-36.
  8. Ng KL, Del Vecchio SJ, Samaratunga H, Morais C, Rajandram R, Vesey DA, Wood ST, Gobe GC. Leptin and its receptor: can they help to differentiate chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from renal oncocytoma?. Pathology. 2018 Aug 1;50(5):504-10.
  9. Ng KL, Yap NY, Rajandram R, Small D, Pailoor J, Ong TA, Razack AH, Wood ST, Morais C, Gobe GC. Nuclear factor-kappa B subunits and their prognostic cancer-specific survival value in renal cell carcinoma patients. Pathology. 2018 Aug 1;50(5):511-8.
  10. Lim J, Rampal S, Razack AH, Malek R, Sundram M, Nasuha NA, Ooi CC, Ong TA, Sothilingam S. A Novel Calculator for Estimating Prostate Volume in Daily Urology Services. Urology. 2018 Aug 1;118:145-51.
  11. Tan JS, Ong KC, Ong DB, Razack A, Lim J, Yunus R, Sundram M, Rhodes A. Heterogenous expression of ERG oncoprotein in Malaysian men with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The Malaysian journal of pathology. 2018 Aug 1;40(2):103-10.
  12. Yee A, Loh HS, Ong TA, Ng CG, Sulaiman AH. Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion as treatment for methadone-emergent sexual dysfunction in men. American journal of men’s health. 2018 Sep;12(5):1705-18.
  13. Abd Ghafar NK, Alip A, Ong TA, Yap NY, Saad M. Efficacy, safety, and prognostic indicators of first-line sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: A single center experience. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. 2018 Oct 1;14(6):1303.
  1. Lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction among patients with osteoarthritis – Grand Challenge-HTM (Wellness) (2014-2019)
  2. Links between cardiovascular risk factors dieting intake & renal stone composite – Cook Grant for Research (2015-2018) 
  3. Establishment and characterization of Malaysian renal cell carcinoma cell lines – Postgraduate Research Grant (PPP) (2016-2018) 
  4. Low intensity shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction – Yayasan Jiwa Malaysia (2016-2018)
  5. Establishing the roles of the receptors involved in the purinergic signalling pathway in the human bladder – Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) (2016-2019) 
  6. Deciphering leptin and leptin receptor and their mechanism in renal cell carcinoma resistance to targeted therapies – University of Malaya Research Fund Assistance (BKP) (2017-2018) 
  7. Asia study group of prostate cancer (A-CaP Study) – Malaysia Cohort (M-CaP Study) – NIH, MOH & University of Tokyo (2017-2020)
  8. Establishing the role of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylases in renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancers invasiveness and progression – Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) (2017-2020)
  9. Molecular profiling and pathway analysis of clinically aggressive renal cell carcinoma – University of Malaya Research Grant-Frontier Science (UMRG-AFR) (2017-2020)